何時(nanji) = Whattime (and not “what time”)

The word for asking “what time” is 何時(なんじ、nanji)。

But people usually confuse this with the word “time” which is 時間(じかん、ikan)

This is because you have phrases like、

今日の ご飯の 準備の 時間は 何時 ですか?
kyou-no gohan-no jyunbi-no jikan-wa nanji desuka?

But actually you can simply the sentence by omitting the word “time” or 時間(じかん、jikan)

今日の ご飯の 準備    は 何時 ですか?
kyou-no gohan-no jyunbi wa nanji desuka?

You see the difference? This understanding actually comes from the fact that in english (and other latin languages) the word “time” is classified or modified by the word “what”, becoming a ‘phrase’ of “what time”. However in japanese, as you can combine two or more kanji characters to make a new word, the word “何時(なんじ、nanji) sounds like ‘one word’ to an foreign ear. Therefore, when you compare it to a language like english where you would ‘modify’ the word “time” with the word “what” to create a ‘phrase’ called ‘what time’ or in literal japanese “time of what”

Another way to think is to treat the japanese 何(なん、nan *note that 何 alone is pronounced なに、nani) like prefixes in Englsih. It’s also a sign that where it is pronounced like 何(なん,nan) instead of 何(なに、nani), it will work much like a prefix in a word “what-time”, thus therefore, as the title of this post says “whattime”…

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Months, Duration of months

1月(いちがつ) January
2月(にがつ) Feburary
3月(さんがつ) March
4月(よんがつ)April
….

1カ月間(かげつ かん) for duration of 1 month
2カ月間(かげつ かん) for duration of 2 months
3カ月間(かげつ かん) for duration of 3 months

How do I say “just now” or “just a moment ago?”

たった、今(いま) just now
さっき just a moment ago

You can use these phrases at the very beginning of your sentences.

ex.
 たった今、起きました。
 I just woke up now.

 たった今、終わりました。
 I just finished now.

ex.
 さっき、起きました。
 I woke up just a moment ago.
 
 さっき、終わりました。
 I finished just a moment ago.